This paper reviews 248 studies that were carried out over three years from 2012 to 2014. The data collected included brackish, seawater and nanofiltration membranes. This body of analytical work gives a definitive statistical representation of the most common types of foulants. It also highlights fouling patterns such as the proportion of membranes that contained multiple foulants and/or scales. The effect of each foulant and/or scale on the flow and differential pressure. Additionally, the recoverability of RO membranes was analyzed and compared to the foulants and/or scales present.